Apache Tomcat

From Bauman National Library
This page was last modified on 19 December 2015, at 15:06.
Apache Tomcat
Web site http://tomcat.apache.org

Apache Tomcat™ is an open source software implementation of the Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages, Java Expression Language and Java WebSocket technologies. The Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages, Java Expression Language and Java WebSocket specifications are developed under the Java Community Process.

Apache Tomcat is developed in an open and participatory environment and released under the Apache License version 2. Apache Tomcat is intended to be a collaboration of the best-of-breed developers from around the world. We invite you to participate in this open development project. To learn more about getting involved, click here.

Apache Tomcat powers numerous large-scale, mission-critical web applications across a diverse range of industries and organizations. Some of these users and their stories are listed on the PoweredBy wiki page.

Apache Tomcat, Tomcat, Apache, the Apache feather, and the Apache Tomcat project logo are trademarks of the Apache Software Foundation. .


Tomcat started off as a servlet reference implementation (computing)|reference implementation by James Duncan Davidson, a software architect at Sun Microsystems. He later helped make the project open source and played a key role in its donation by Sun Microsystems to the Apache Software Foundation. The Apache Ant software build automation tool was developed as a side-effect of the creation of Tomcat as an open source project. Davidson had initially hoped that the project would become open sourced and, since many open source projects had O'Reilly Media|O'Reilly books associated with them featuring an animal on the cover, he wanted to name the project after an animal. He came up with Cat|Tomcat since he reasoned the animal represented something that could fend for itself. Although the tomcat was already in use for another O'Reilly title, his wish to see an animal cover eventually came true when O'Reilly published their Tomcat book with a snow leopard on the cover in 2003.


Tomcat 4.x was released with Catalina (a servlet container), Coyote (an HTTP connector) and Jasper (a JSP engine). Catalina is Tomcat's Web container|servlet container. Catalina implements Sun Microsystems' specifications for Java servlet|servlet and JavaServer Pages (JSP). In Tomcat, a Realm element represents a "database" of usernames, passwords, and roles (similar to Unix groups) assigned to those users. Different implementations of Realm allow Catalina to be integrated into environments where such authentication information is already being created and maintained, and then use that information to implement Container Managed Security as described in the Servlet Specification. Coyote is a Connector component for Tomcat that supports the HTTP 1.1 protocol as a web server. This allows Catalina, nominally a Java Servlet or JSP container, to also act as a plain web server that serves local files as HTTP documents. Coyote listens for incoming connections to the server on a specific Transmission Control Protocol|TCP port and forwards the request to the Tomcat Engine to process the request and send back a response to the requesting client. Another Coyote Connector, Coyote JK, listens similarly but instead forwards its requests to another web server, such as Apache, using the Apache JServ Protocol|JK protocol. This usually offers better performance. Jasper is Tomcat's JSP Engine. Jasper parses JSP files to compile them into Java code as servlets (that can be handled by Catalina). At runtime, Jasper detects changes to JSP files and recompiles them. As of version 5, Tomcat uses Jasper 2, which is an implementation of the Sun Microsystems's JavaServer Pages|JSP 2.0 specification. From Jasper to Jasper 2, important features were added:

  • JSP Tag library pooling - Each tag markup in JSP file is handled by a tag handler class. Tag handler class objects can be pooled and reused in the whole JSP servlet.
  • Background JSP compilation - While recompiling modified JSP Java code, the older version is still available for server requests. The older JSP servlet is deleted once the new JSP servlet has finished being recompiled.
  • Recompile JSP when included page changes - Pages can be inserted and included into a JSP at runtime. The JSP will not only be recompiled with JSP file changes but also with included page changes.
  • JDT Java compiler - Jasper 2 can use the Eclipse JDT (Java Development Tools) Java compiler instead of Apache Ant|Ant and javac.

Some of the free Apache Tomcat resources and communities include Tomcatexpert.com (a SpringSource sponsored community for developers and operators who are running Apache Tomcat in large-scale production environments) and MuleSoft's Apache Tomcat Resource Center (which has instructional guides on installing, updating, configuring, monitoring, troubleshooting and securing various versions of Tomcat).

How to install

For Windows

  • Goto [1] ⇒ Downloads ⇒ Tomcat 8.0 ⇒ "8.0.{xx}" (where {xx} is the latest upgrade number) ⇒ Binary Distributions ⇒ Core ⇒ "ZIP" package (e.g., "apache-tomcat-8.0.{xx}.zip", about 8 MB)
  • UNZIP into a directory of your choice. DO NOT unzip onto the Desktop (because its path is hard to locate). I suggest using "d:\myProject". Tomcat will be unzipped into directory "d:\myProject\apache-tomcat-8.0.{xx}". For ease of use, we shall shorten and rename this directory to "d:\myProject\tomcat". Take note of Your Tomcat Installed Directory. Hereafter, I shall refer to the Tomcat installed directory as <TOMCAT_HOME> (or <CATALINA_HOME> - "Catalina" is the codename for Tomcat 5 and above).
  • (Advanced) A better approach is to keep the original directory name, such as apache-tomcat-8.0.{xx}, but create a symlink called tomcat via command "mklink /D tomcat apache-tomcat-8.0.{xx}". Symlink is available in Windows Vista/7/8 only.

For Mas OS X

  • Goto [2] ⇒ Download ⇒ Tomcat 8.0 ⇒ "8.0.{xx}" (where {xx} denotes the latest upgrade number) ⇒ Binary distribution ⇒ Core ⇒ "tar.gz" package (e.g., "apache-tomcat-8.0.{xx}.tar.gz", about 8 MB).
  • To install Tomcat:
    • Goto "~/Downloads", double-click the downloaded tarball (e.g., "apache-tomcat-8.0.{xx}.tar.gz") to expand it into a folder (e.g., "apache-tomcat-8.0.{xx}").
    • Move the extracted folder (e.g., "apache-tomcat-8.0.{xx}") to "/Applications".
    • Rename the folder to "tomcat", for ease of use. Take note of Your Tomcat Installed Directory. Hereafter, I shall refer to the Tomcat installed directory as <TOMCAT_HOME> (or <CATALINA_HOME> - "Catalina" is the codename for Tomcat 5 and above).

Useful links

  • [3] - A lot of knowledges
  • [4] - Tutorial
  • [5] - From the Git
  • [6] - Manual

External links